Who were the Landsknechte?

By Heather R. Darsie

In the 16th century there existed powerful groups of soldiers-for-hire in the Holy Roman Empire called “Landsknechte,” which literally means “country servants.” The singular form of the word is, “Landsknecht.” The word was frequently Anglicized into “lance knights” and Gallicized into “lansquenet.” These mercenaries developed into formidable, well-trained soldiers in the late 15th through early 16th centuries.

The Landsknechte were formed due to the need of the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I to maintain control over his dominions, including Burgundy which he acquired by the right of his marriage to Mary of Burgundy. Georg von Frunsberg is considered the Father of the Landsknechte. Georg von Frunsberg was born 24 September 1473 in Memmingen, Germany. At the age of roughly 26, Frunsberg was part of the Landsknechte who fought the Swiss knights-for-hire, the Reisläufer, in 1499. Frunsberg also went to Milan to protect the duchy from French invasion. Frundsberg rose to the rank of commander, and participated in campaigns against the Empire’s enemies in 1504, 1509, 1513, 1514, 1521, 1522, and 1525. He passed away on 20 August 1528 in the same place he was born, Mindleheim Castle in Memmingen, Germany.

Maximilian I was elected King of the Romans-Germans on 16 February 1486 and almost immediately set to work gathering Landknechte mercenaries. These foot soldiers were equipped with halberds, pikes, and swords. A small percentage of each regiment was equipped with harquebuses and two-handed swords. They would fight in phalanxes, repelling cavalry attacks. The Landsknechte were trained by Swiss Reisläufer who Maximilian I was able to hire for such purposes.

The mercenaries themselves came from all different backgrounds. Some were criminals, others peasants or nobles, all with different motivations stemming from enjoying the adventure to being forced into action by their lord. The Landsknechte had loyalty to no one. They fought for whoever paid them, even if it meant attacking their place of origin. Anyone hiring the Landsknechte always risked mutiny or abandonment if payment was not timely. On top of that, the Landsknechte were known to pillage the victims if they were unhappy with their pay, or force sieges and battles before their money ran out.

The Landsknechte traveled in large groups of attendants and women, often wearing flamboyant clothing because the Landsknechte were exempt from sumptuary laws. It is thought that the style of dress adopted by the Landsknechte influenced European fashion to an extent. The women were an important part of each Fahnlein, or 400-man company, and carried out specific tasks. The women acted as laundresses, seamstresses, cooks, midwives, and money-handlers. The women were assigned hard labor as well, which included digging trenches. The women participated in pillaging, too.

The Landsknechte were very well-organized in the late 15th and early 16th centuries. A Landsknechte regiment was comprised from ten, 400-man Fahnlein, making a regiment approximately 4,000 persons. Each Fahnlein was made up of multiple Rotten, the number of which depended upon the types of soldiers in each Rotten.  Each regiment was led by a colonel, who received his commission from the local lord. A contract was drawn up between the colonel and the lord, spelling out the pay for the soldiers and what the duties of the hired Landsknechte were. Each unit had a leader, and the Landsknechte were known to dispense their own justice amongst their ranks.

The Landsknechte were at their most formidable during the Sack of Rome in 1527. A mutinous force led by the Duke of Bourbon, the pitiless mercenaries chose to march on Rome after not being paid by the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V for their role in his 1525 victory at Pavia. The Landsknechte entered Rome on  6 May 1527 through St Peter’s and the Borgo Santo Spirito, and they with other groups of mercenaries murdered everyone in sight. It did not matter whether the victims were soldiers or civilians. Pope Clement VII barely escaped St Peter’s Basilica for the safety of Castel Sant’ Angelo. This Swiss guard tasked with protecting St Peter’s lost a substantial number of their force in the carnage. Allegedly most of the Swiss Guard were murdered on the high altar within St. Peter’s Basilica. Pope Clement eventually surrendered to Charles V in June 1527.

The Landsknechte continued to be a threatening force throughout the mid-16th century. By the end of the 16th century, the Landsknechte were no longer as well-regulated. Due to lack of work and other economic factors, the numbers wishing to join the Landsknechte grew while the utility of mercenary troops fell because of the advancement of gunpowder, cannon, and firearms. The mercenaries devolved into little more than roving groups of bandits and sellswords before finally petering out at the end of the 16th century.

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Anna, Duchess of Cleves: The King’s ‘Beloved Sister’ by Heather R. Darsie is released 15 April in the UK and 1 July in the US. If you live in the US and cannot wait until July, you can order a hardcover from the UK Amazon.

The book can be purchased here:

UK Hardcover: https://www.amazon.co.uk/Anna-Duchess-Cleves-Beloved-Sister/dp/1445677105/ref=sr_1_1?keywords=darsie&qid=1553980680&s=gateway&sr=8-1

UK Kindle: https://www.amazon.co.uk/Anna-Duchess-Cleves-Beloved-Sister-ebook/dp/B07PNQKR77/ref=tmm_kin_swatch_0?_encoding=UTF8&qid=1553980680&sr=8-1

US Hardcover: https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1445677105?pf_rd_p=1cac67ce-697a-47be-b2f5-9ae91aab54f2&pf_rd_r=3N5CGT7W6TPG1X0AF7PZ

US Kindle: https://www.amazon.com/Anna-Duchess-Cleves-Beloved-Sister-ebook/dp/B07PNQKR77/ref=tmm_kin_swatch_0?_encoding=UTF8&qid=&sr=

 

Sources & Suggested Reading

  1. Darsie, Heather R. Anna, Duchess of Cleves: The King’s ‘Beloved Sister’. Stroud: Amberley Publishing (2019).
  2. The Editors of the Encyclopedia Britannica. “Georg von Frundsberg.” Published 20 September 2018. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Georg-von-Frundsberg Retrieved 11 April 2019.
  3. The Editors of the Encyclopedia Britannica. “Landsknecht.” Published 2 December 2015. https://www.britannica.com/topic/Landsknechte Retrieved 11 April 2019.
  4. Bunting, Tony. “Sack of Rome.” Published 23 May 2018. https://www.britannica.com/event/Sack-of-Rome-1527 Retrieved 13 April 2019.
  5. Erben, Wilhelm. “Maximilian I. Und Die Landsknechte.” Historische Zeitschrift116, no. 1 (1916): 48-68. http://www.jstor.org/stable/27603166.
  6. Rabe, Georg, Sigmund Feyerabend und Weygand Hanen Erben. Herrn Georg und Herrn Caspar von Fründsberg. Frankfurt am Main (1568).
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Book Review – The Seymours of Wolf Hall by David Loades

By Nathen Amin

The term ‘Wolf Hall’ has become widely recognised in recent years thanks to the title of Hilary Mantel’s Booker Prize-winning tour de force, released to much acclaim in 2010. Whilst the protagonist of Mantel’s fictional work is a certain Thomas Cromwell, Wolf Hall itself refers to the family home of the Seymours, a provincially important dynasty based in the Wiltshire manor house.

David Loades book unquestionably intends to capitalise on the considerable attention given to Wolf Hall and its one-time inhabitants through Mantel’s award-winning words, but this isn’t to diminish the scope of Loades’ work; this is a long overdue assessment of the life and times of the foremost of the Seymours, briefly encompassing their beginnings to the apex of their influence during the reigns of Henry VIII and the Seymour-blooded Edward VI. As Loades notes at the outset; “The Seymour family was one of the most prominent at the Tudor court”. Their worth as subjects of such a work does not stem solely from Mantel’s influence.

The book is subtitled ‘A Tudor Family Story’, and with good reason, as the focus of the book is unquestionably Edward and Thomas Seymour, the brothers of Queen Jane who rose high in the Tudor court after their sister’s marriage to Henry VIII in 1537. Edward gradually replaced Thomas Cromwell as King Henry’s chief servant after 1540, becoming earl of Hertford, duke of Somerset and, after the accession of his nephew Edward VI, Lord Protector of England. Thomas was Lord High Admiral, and based at Sudeley Castle with his wife Katherine Parr, the final wife of King Henry, was briefly in custody of the young Princess Elizabeth. Queen Jane, meanwhile, was the focus of Loades’ previous work ‘Jane Seymour: Henry VIII’s Favourite Wife’, which serves as a great companion piece to this particular work.

The author is an Emeritus Professor of the University of Wales, not to mention a fellow of the Royal Historical Society, and as to be expected from such an accomplished academic figure, the book is a thorough, thought-provoking, masterpiece when it comes to the Seymour family in the sixteenth century. You won’t find irrational leaps of opinion or wild speculation in this book unlike many other similar productions, but rather hard fact and logical conclusions drawn directly from available primary source material. Loades’ book is about the real Seymours and how they lived, politicked and endured, not fictional conjecture with little basis in reality. I do feel the book glosses over the origins of the family, founded in the seventh century, and quickly advances to the life and times of Sir John Seymour, the queen’s father, but this is probably not an issue for an intended audience primarily concerned with learning about the Tudor Seymours. This criticism is quickly offset by the engaging introduction from Professor Loades where he effectively justifies the necessity of his work.

The Seymours of Wolf Hall’ is ultimately a much-recommended companion to the more mainstream works on Henry VIII and his extraordinary reign, whilst also serving as a splendid book in its own right. It serves as an ideal read for those looking to broaden their horizons on all things Tudor, and ultimately, whether on topic or off, Professor Loades is one of the most eminent authorities on the Tudor court. There is much to learn from this book.

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David Loades was Emeritus Professor of the University of Wales and an Honorary Member of the University of Oxford, History Faculty. He was also a Fellow of the Royal Historical Society, Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, Vice-President of the Navy Record Society and former President of the Ecclesiastical History Society. He is the author of over thirty books on the sixteenth century, specializing in the Tudors.

Book Review – Catherine of Aragon; An Intimate Life of Henry VIII’s True Wife by Amy Licence

By Nathen Amin

I’ve said in previous book reviews for Amy Licence, that she is unquestionably the most prolific historian writing today. Her output of books in recent years is incredible, the culmination of a life’s fascination and study of the subject, and this continues with her latest offering, Catherine of Aragon, an Intimate Life of Henry VIII’s True Wife.

My first thought upon receiving the book, is that it’s MASSIVE. It’s a seriously thick book, comprising 560 pages split across 7 separate parts. Covered are Catherine’s birth and childhood in Spain, her marriage to Prince Arthur, her widowhood, her early marriage years to Henry VIII, her life as Queen of England, the downfall of her marriage and her final, tragic years. It’s fair to say, this may just be the definitive account of the life of Catherine of Aragon.

Licence’s speciality is the study of the Tudor women, as women in their own right, not as mere decorations of their husbands, fathers or brothers, and it is this expertise she applies to Catherine of Aragon, the foremost Tudor woman for the first quarter of the sixteenth century.

The author leaves no stone unturned, and covers the entirety of Queen Catherine’s life, not just her more infamous moments. Anyone with a passing interest in the Tudors will know of Catherine’s doomed marriage to Arthur, followed by her second union with his brother, Henry. This does not, and should not, define Catherine, however, and the author does a great job in examining the early life of the Spanish princess, from her birth in 1485 to her upbringing amongst the fascinating and colourful royal court of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile, Europe’s renowned Catholic Monarchs. Catherine’s later devoutness and stubbornness did not come from nowhere, it was imbued in her as a product of this illustrious Spanish union.

14591841_1222548391146094_4556601838587401747_nParticularly fascinating, and crucial to Catherine’s life, is the detailed account of her 1501 wedding to Arthur, particularly the subsequent ‘did they, didn’t they?’ bedding ceremony, or ‘the most famous bedding ceremony of all time’ as Licence aptly puts it. Intriguingly, Licence offers a third, graphic, scenario as to what happened on that fateful night, a compelling theory that may just make you blush.

We are also treated to an in-depth insight into Catherine’s life in between her marriages. It is often overlooked that this span of time was eight years, that is almost a decade of character growth which is often disregarded in other books on the subject. It is these insights into the lesser-known minutiae of the queen’s life that make Licence’s book a worthwhile purchase. In fact, I’d argue it’s a necessity for anyone who wishes to study, or gain greater knowledge, of the first half of the Tudor century of rule.

As expected perhaps from the leading Tudor historian on female matters, this book is sympathetic and understanding of its subject, but that’s not to say in a biased or predisposed way. Licence comes to her conclusions about Katherine through sheer research of her character, her influences and her actions, and puts forward a compelling case of a pious and courageous woman who only sought to serve her god, and serve her husband, in the manner she thought best. This is a compassionate and positive portrayal of Catherine, but that is only because it is the least the woman deserves.

Quite simply, there doesn’t appear to be anything more said on the subject of Catherine of Aragon, that what Amy Licence has covered in her colossal biography.

Book Review – In the Footsteps of the Six Wives of Henry VIII by Sarah Morris and Natalie Grueninger

By Nathen Amin

Whilst everyone assumes that I am into the ‘Tudors subject’ as a whole, 1485 to 1603 is a substantial period of time covering many aspects. I find myself drawn to the early period of the Tudors and in particular the reign of Henry VII and the Wars of the Roses that preceded his rise. Henry VIII interests me, his multiple wives and successors less so.

Therefore I was expecting to be intrigued by this new offering from Morris and Greuninger, just not overly so. With books like this, focusing on parts of the Tudor reign that I normally choose to overlook as matter of preference, I tend to try and focus on any information relating to Henry VII that I didn’t previously know. Any concerns I may have had about being bored by the subject matter at hand however, was dispelled as soon as I saw the contents page. Castle after Castle and Palace after Palace, including some oddly unfamiliar ones.

This book follows on the heels of the pairs’ much-lauded book In the Footsteps of Anne Boleyn, a release that has become a must-have for those stimulated by the charismatic enigma that was Henry VIII’s second queen. Casting the net wider, this new offering seeks to, self-explanatory, follow in the footsteps of not only Anne, but also her five other fellow queens of Henry VIII.

51C52QElN8LGuide books like this are a particular favourite of mine. I not only enjoy reading history, I enjoy visiting history and judging from the continued survival of many of Britain’s historic treasures, this seems to be a widely held sentiment. Being able to picture a location from words alone can be rewarding, but to physically visit a site is even better. For those unable to, due to time, distance or otherwise, books like this are an invaluable aid in furthering ones knowledge. But do not be mistaken, this is not a basic guide book light on historical content.

The book is split into seven sections, with one covering the principal royal residences known to all, followed by an individual section dedicated to each queen. In total we are provided eighty locations, with a detailed history of each along with information on any interesting artefacts or features still extant. This is bolstered by over 130 pictures of the sites for those unable to physically visit. A welcome inclusion is the plethora of family trees, maps and timelines that augment the text. Each entry has also been visited by the authors, which is evident in their narrative as they paint a vivid mental picture with their words. Furthermore each queen is introduced with a short biography so even if you have no prior knowledge of the personalities involved, you are catered for. It’s information-overload in the best sense of the word.

The old favourites are here; Hampton Court Palace, Whitehall Palace and Windsor Castle. But where this book stands on its own is the inclusion of the lesser known sites which once hosted queens of England. Acton Court near Bristol has a room where Anne Boleyn and Henry VIII dined in whilst for the first time that I’m aware of we are introduced to the various locations in Germany and Spain with Tudor connections. Dusseldorf features prominently in reference to Anne of Cleves with Spanish sites such as the Royal Palace of Medina del Campo, Alcazar of Seville or the Santiago de Compostela Cathedral providing a thorough account of the early life of Katherine of Aragon. An example of the detailed narrative can be found in the entry for the Archbishop’s Palace, Alcala de Henares in Madrid, where Katherine was born. The authors describe the palace as;

“a vast complex of buildings, gardens and courtyards, more than double the size of the original fortress. It comprised several patios (courtyards), towers, galleries and chambers, including la sala de la Reyna, the queen’s chamber, elaborately decorated in Gothic-Mudejar style, and on the floor above, el Salon de Concilios, or Council Wing”.

Elsewhere, I hadn’t heard of the Echateau d’Amboise or the Schloss Dusselforf for example, so these were fascinating to discover. Closer to home, I hadn’t come across places such as Beddington Place, the Manor of Bletchingley or Thornton Abbey before. The research cannot be faulted.

In the introduction to the book, the authors note that In the Footsteps… takes the reader ‘from the sun-baked plains of Spain in the south, through the lush mountains of the Rhine Valley in Germany to the east, via the great abbeys of England’s West Country to the medieval cities of northern England’. They’re not wrong. Thoroughly enjoyable read, that can be used as and when you need it as a handy reference guide. I’ll certainly be taking it out and about next time I’m visiting any Tudor sites.
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Sarah Morris runs the website http://www.anneboleynbook.com, dedicated to her non-fiction and fiction writing about England’s most famous queen consort.

Natalie Grueninger is a researcher, writer and educator, and founder of http://www.onthetudortrail.com, a site about Anne Boleyn and Tudor England. She is the co-author, with Sarah Morris, of In the Footsteps of Anne Boleyn.

Book Review – Edward IV & Elizabeth Woodville; A True Romance by Amy Licence

Author Amy Licence notes in her introduction that Edward IV has been somewhat overlooked in the annals of British history, noting that he was ‘a king who has been damned with faint praise’. This may at first seem surprising to those that study the fifteenth century over which his sizable figure looms large. Edward was tall and handsome, a courageous soldier on the battlefield who had been blessed an irresistible charm around his subjects. Yet when one takes a step back and looks at medieval England objectively, the author has a point; Edward IV has been overshadowed, if not by his brother Richard III or grandson Henry VIII then certainly by other monarchs like Henry V and Edward III.

Licence endeavours to bring this first king of the House of York out of the shadows of his illustrious relations, a task in which she succeeds with this book, the first non-fiction work about their relationship. The story of Edward is principally the story of his scandalous, kingdom-dividing marriage to Elizabeth Woodville, a topic Licence examines in detail in an attempt to uncover the significance of their controversial nuptials in 1464. It is a subject the she feels continues to fascinate ‘as an enduring love story set against the most turbulent of times’. She’s right.

Edward could have chosen any woman in Europe to have been his wife; after valiantly winning his crown on a battlefield at the age of only nineteen, he was every inch a stereotypical fairy tale prince. Tall, handsome, athletic, rich and young, he possessed ‘princely and knightly courage’. Edward IV was the most eligible bachelor in the western world. It was therefore inconceivable that he took for his wife the widow Elizabeth Woodville, five years his elder and allied to the Lancastrian affinity. It was unpopular with his nobles, his subjects and his family. Perhaps the fact she was considered ‘the most beautiful woman in the island of Britain’ had a bearing, but as the author points out, there was much more to Elizabeth than her looks. That Edward persevered with Elizabeth is an indication of his genuine love and attraction for his wife.

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The first part book provides ample background information on both Edward and Elizabeth, focusing on their childhood and early adulthood, culminating in their fortuitous meeting, some say, under an oak tree. Particularly welcomed is the detail Licence provides about the early years of Elizabeth, not a topic often covered in most works which tend to concentrate on those of royal birth. Personally I was intrigued to discover that, prior to her first marriage, Elizabeth was courted by Sir Hugh Joneys of Swansea. I was aware that Joneys would later be entrusted with tutoring the young Henry Tudor in martial arts during the 1460s and was pleased to discover this other, lesser-known, event in his life. Such small detail is a credit to the research Licence has undertaken.

No book about Edward IV and Elizabeth is complete without covering the latter part of their relationship, the demise of the king due to his excessive lifestyle and the subsequent tragedy of the Princes in the Tower. Unlike many writers who may feel the temptation to do so, Licence doesn’t dwell on history’s most famous ‘whodunit’ other than to discuss the events from the viewpoint of her subject, the desperate Elizabeth, again an often underdeveloped perspective of the period.

It is difficult to cover such a broad topic as the Wars of the Roses and the multitude of characters without confusing a reader new to the subject, but Licence succeeds in simplifying the era and in particular the complex genealogical aspect of the conflict. To do this without omitting any vital detail is applauded. Another welcome aspect of the book is Licence’s regular usage of extended sourced material as part of the main text rather than footnoted, for example the letter of Edward as a child to his father in 1455. Whilst on some occasions this may interrupt the narrative, it is utilised to such effect by the author that in this instance that it helps the reader’s understanding of the period as well as perhaps formulating their own interpretation of the source along with Licence’s.

Overall the book is well researched and engaging piece that offers a fresh view of a well-told subject, a talent which Licence has shown numerous times in her previous work. At one point Licence poses the question – ‘What was it about this woman that so captivated Edward that he was prepared to take such a risk?’. Edward IV & Elizabeth Woodville, a True Romance goes some way to helping answer that question.

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Amy Licence is the author of several books on the Tudor dynasty and the Wars of the Roses, including In Bed With the Tudors (‘A fascinating book examining the sex lives of the Tudors in unprecedented detail’ Daily Express), Anne Neville, Elizabeth of York and The Six Wives & Many Mistresses of Henry VIII, all published by Amberley. Amy has written for the Guardian, The Times Literary Supplement and BBC History Magazine and has appeared on BBC radio and television. She lives in Canterbury with her husband and two children.

Book Review – The Tudor Kitchen: What the Tudors Ate & Drank by Terry Breverton

By Nathen Amin

Did you ever wonder what the Tudors ate and drank?

This new book by historian Terry Breverton gives us an overview of the very fabric of Tudor life, for both rich and poor. The age saw an amazing variety of new dishes, many of which have been taken from contemporary sources for this cookbook. As well as giving us interesting and useful recipes, the book tells us to forget popcorn – when being entertained by Shakespeare’s plays, theatre-goers enjoyed vast quantities of oysters, crabs, cockles, mussels, periwinkles and whelks, as well as walnuts, hazelnuts, raisins, plums, cherries, dried figs, peaches, elderberry and blackberry pies and sturgeon steaks. Among the Tudor court food purchases in just one year we count 8,200 sheep, 2,330 deer and 53 wild boar, plus thousands of birds such as peacock, heron, capon, teal, gull, shoveler, quail, pheasant, swan and cygnet.

Part One of the book explains how the Tudors farmed, their animals and cereals, with the majority of the population having a monotonous diet with very little meat or fish. The first two chapters describe Tudor food and drink, and the differences between diets and the classes. The third chapter informs us about the great kitchens such as Hampton Court and Chapter 4 tells us of royal feasts, etiquette and helps understand why Henry VIII went from a 32-inch waist aged 30, to a 54-inch waist aged 55.

Part Two gives us around 500 recipes of the times, which can be tried by curious or enterprising readers. There are some astonishing combinations of flavours, and Tudor cuisine is something we are only now coming to appreciate.

Examples of such Tudor foods featured in the book include;

  • EGGES IN MONESHYNE – EGGS IN MOONLIGHT (The Proper Newe Booke of Cookerye c.1557), when the eggs are cooked by poaching in a syrup of rose water and sugar, so that they look like moons.
  •  BUBBLY BEER CHEESE BREAKFAST SOUPTO BOYLE A LEG OF MUTTON WITH LEMMONS – LEMONED LAMB (The Booke of Goode Cookry Very Necessary for all Such as Delight Therein 1584, 1591);
  • SALMON SALLET FOR FISH DAYS – SALMON AND ONION SALAD WITH VIOLETS – PANSY SALMON (Thomas Dawson’s The Good Huswifes Jewell 1585, 1594, 1596)
  •  CAPONS IN DORRE – CHICKEN IN GOLDEN ALMOND MILK (Gentyll manly Cokere MS Pepys 1047 c.1500)
  •  BOYLED CAPON IN WHITE BROTH – SWEET AND SOUR ALMOND CHICKEN (Sir Hugh Plat’s Delightes for Ladies 1602)
  • STEAMED ASPARAGUS SPEARS IN ORANGE SAUCE (Traditional Elizabethan recipe, originating in Granada, 1599)
  • WHITE GINGER BREAD (A.W., A Booke of Goode Cookry Very Necessary for all Such as Delight Therein 1584, 1591).

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Who knew that the Tudors ate ravioli, crackers, macaroni, rice, crisps, quiche, Jerusalem artichokes, couscous, puffins, badgers and favoured sweet and sour dishes? And that COMPOST is the more attractively renamed COLD SPICED VEGETABLES IN WINE AND HONEY SAUCE? And GARBAGE was a BROTH OF CHICKEN HEADS, FEET AND LIVERS? Or that CRESSEE was a GINGER PASTA CHEESE CHESSBOARD SANDWICH? Or that SWEET POTATOES IN ROSE AND ORANGE SYRUP (Elinor Fettiplace’s Receipt Book 1605) was a popular dish for nobility?

Breverton’s research into Tudor meals has also enabled him to have some fun by attributing some of these sixteenth century dishes with modern namings. For example;

  •     RAPES IN POTAGE – BALDRICK’S TURNIP BROTH (The Master-Cook of Richard II, The Forme of Cury c.1390)
  •  CAPON BAKED WITH EGG YOLKS – FOWL PIE (John Partridge’s The Treasurie of Commodious Conceits & Hidden Secrets 1573)
  • A DISH OF PARTICULAR COLOURS – MULTICOLOURED CHICKENS (And Thus You Have a Lordly Dish: Fancy and Showpiece Cookery in an Augsberg Patrician Kitchen Sabina Welser 1553)
  • VENISON COFFINS – DEER PASTIES (A.W., A Book of Cookrye 1584, 1591)
  • HOW TO MAKE A FRIED MEAT OF TURNEPS – BALDRICK’S ERSATZ MEAT (Epulario, Or, The Italian Banquet, English translation of 1598)
  • BRAIN BALLS AND BRAIN CAKES – THE SILENCE OF THE LAMBS (English Housewifry, exemplified in above four hundred and fifty receipts, giving directions in most parts of cookery)
  • POMMES DORRES – FLY BALLS (The Master-Cook of Richard II, The Forme of Cury c.1390)
  • LET LARDES – MULTI-COLOURED CUSTARD FRY-UP (The Master-Cook of Richard II, The Forme of Cury c.1390)
  • PEARES SODDEN IN ALE, BASTARD AND HONNEY – PEARS IN BASTARD PIES (A.W., A Book of Cookrye 1584, 1591.)

 Indeed, of LAMPREY PIE Breverton writes: ‘It is a back-boneless, secretive, primitive, blood-sucking, worm-like parasite, and for these reasons I have renamed it Politicians’ Pie’.

Breverton’s final chapter is entitled THINGS YOU MAY NOT WANT TO COOK (OR EAT) (OR SEE). In this chapter is included such delicacies as

 LIVE BLACKBIRD, RABBIT, FROG, DOG OR DWARF PIE; ROAST CAT AS YOU WOULD WISH TO EAT IT; A GOOSE ROASTED ALIVE; ENTIRE LUNGS OF KID IN CAUL; PIES OF COCKS’ COMBS WITH WHOLE TESTICLES; POTATON TARTE THAT IS A COURAGE TO MAN OR WOMAN – APHRODISIAC SWEET POTATO PIE WITH COCK SPARROW BRAINS (Thomas Dawson’s The Good Housewife’s Jewell 1587)

PYES OF CALVES FEET (The Booke of Goode Cookry Very Necessary for all Such as Delight Therein 1584, 1591)

 SPARROWS IN MUTTON BROTH; BURSEU – A DISH OF MINCED PIG ENTRAILS; SEA-PIG – SEVERAL WAYS WITH A PORPOISE; LAMPREY IN BLOOD SAUCE WITH A DEEP-FRIED LAMPREY SPINAL CORD; AND TORTURED LAMPREY FRYED, BOYLD, AND ROSTED AT THE SAME TIME; RABBETES SOUKER ROST – ROAST FOETAL RABBITS (Coronation Menu of Richard III, 6 July 1483)

STUFFED SUFFOCATED CHICKS; HERON ROST – SPIT-ROASTED HERON; and CHAUDYNN FOR SWANNS – SWAN WITH BLOOD AND ENTRAIL SAUCE.

 And HART ROWS – PIG STOMACH LEGLESS HEDGEHOGS were pigs’ stomachs stuffed with pork, eggs and breadcrumbs, decorated with pastry spines to look like hedgehogs.

Breverton’s book is really informative and entertaining, useful for adding to both your historical knowledge and your cooking repertoire. You’ll have great fun learning, and perhaps trying out, these authentic Tudor recipes.

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Historian Terry Breverton is a former businessman, consultant and academic and is now a full-time writer, having received the Welsh Books Council’s Book of the Month Award five times. He is an expert in Welsh culture and history and has presented documentaries on the Discovery Channel, the History Channel etc. Terry has worked in over 20 countries and has written over 40 well-received books including Richard III: The King in the Carpark; Breverton’s First World War Curiosities; Owain Glyndŵr: The Story of the Last Prince of Wales; Wales: The Biography; Wales: A Historical Companion; Immortal Words; Immortal Last Words; Breverton’s Nautical Curiosities: A Book of the Sea; Breverton’s Phantasmagoria; Breverton’s Encyclopaedia of Inventions; Black Bart Roberts; The Journal of Penrose, Seaman and Breverton’s Complete Herbal.

Breverton’s latest releases are ‘Jasper Tudor: Dynasty Maker’, ‘Everything You Have Ever Wanted to Know About The Tudors But Were Afraid To Ask’ and ‘The Tudor Kitchen’, all published by Amberley.

Book Review – Henry VIII’s Last Love: The Extraordinary Life of Katherine Willoughby, Lady-in-Waiting to the Tudors by David Baldwin

By Nathen Amin

David Baldwin’s latest release is a fascinating portrayal of a woman who almost became the seventh wife of Henry VIII; as it was the king died before any plans came to fruition and the name of Katherine Willoughby was somewhat lost to history. Baldwin attempts, and will succeed, bringing the erstwhile Duchess of Suffolk back into the spotlight with this in-depth account of her life at the most famous royal court in English history.

Somewhat fittingly for a future Duchess of Suffolk, Katherine was born in March 1519 in Parham Old Hall in Suffolk as the daughter of Baron Willoughby de Eresby and Spaniard Maria de Salinas. Her father was one of the greatest landowners in the region whilst her mother was a close friend and lady-in-waiting to Queen Katherine of Aragon. The wedding of Baron Willoughby and Maria de Salinas incurred the support of King Henry and he attended the wedding where he bestowed a cash gift on the couple along with Grimsthorpe Castle. Henry even named one of his ships after Maria, the Mary Willoughby. Considering the closeness of Maria to Katherine of Aragon it seems probable that young Katherine Willoughby was named for the queen.

The child inherited her father’s barony at the age of seven on the death of her father in 1526 and this made her one of the greatest heiresses in the country and by proxy an eligible marital prospect. Her wardship reverted to the crown but was sold by the king to his close friend Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk. Suffolk married his ward in 1533 only ten weeks after the death of his wife, the king’s sister Mary. Rather scandalously the Duke was 49 years old whilst his young bride was only 14. Nonetheless they appear to have had a happy marriage that included two young sons, Henry and Charles.

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Although she had remained an ardent Roman Catholic, after the death of her Spanish mother in 1539 it seems Katherine embraced Protestantism. Whilst discussing the Duchess’ conversion from Catholic to Protestant, Baldwin helpfully attempts to summarise the divide between the two strands of Christianity for the modern reader. This is helpful in that the topic is often taken for granted by an author and helps add context to the importance of Katherine’s conversion and the impact it had on her life during this period of religious turmoil. Baldwin points out that disagreements between the two faiths was often a matter of life and death and into this void bravely stepped the Duchess during this period. The author takes the step of stating that “this daughter of a Roman Catholic mother became on of the most fervent Protestants of her day”. This was furthered by her friendship to King Henry VIII’s sixth wife Katherine Parr, a noted reformer and devotee to learning.

At the time of her elderly husband’s death in 1545, the Dowager Duchess of Suffolk was still only 26 years old, fertile and attractive with a wealthy portfolio of property. She was as attractive a marital proposition as she had been prior to her marriage to Charles Brandon. In spite of her close friendship to the king’s current queen, Katherine Parr, rumours spread across royal courts that the King was about to take another wife, namely Katherine Willoughby, widow of his best friend Brandon. In February 1546 Imperial Ambassador Van der Delft wrote: “I hesitate to report there are rumours of a new queen. Some attribute it to the sterility of the present Queen, while others say that there will be no change during the present war. Madame Suffolk is much talked about and is in great favour”.

Baldwin theorises “It is possible that by 1546 he had grown impatient with Queen Catherine’s failure to give him a second son, and more than ever saw this younger, perhaps more attractive, woman who was now a widow and the mother of two healthy boys as the solution to his problem. He would not have been the first man to think that a new, more exciting, relationship would somehow restore his lost youth”. As it was, Katherine never married Henry and the king died in 1547 still wed to her friend and intellectual companion, Katherine Parr.

Katherine Willoughby’s later life would be spent as a leading participant in the Protestant Reformation and Baldwin recounts her actions and movements during this period with alacrity and insightful analysis, including her grief at the deaths of her two sons from the Sweating Sickness in 1551. She spent a period in exile during the reign of Queen Mary due to her committed protestant beliefs before returning after the accession of Elizabeth. She remained a protestant figurehead until her death as an elderly woman in 1580, by which point she was close to irreconcilably falling out with the queen. Each moment is documented in detail by Baldwin who has used a wide range of sources to formulate his biography.

Baldwin’s book is opened with a quote by Muriel St Clare Bryne who stated in 1981 that “Katherine Willoughby is one of the most interesting women of the Tudor Period” and Baldwin’s book serves to underline this notion. The author summarises her life as one ‘of privilege mixed with tragedy and danger, but she kept her head on her shoulders when many of her contemporaries lost theirs for less cause’. The book is concise and detailed; it focuses on events and their impact on his subject as opposed to other books on the era which often delve off on irrelevant tangents. All in all, Katherine Willoughby is a woman who was actively involved in some of the most important events of the Tudor age and was a contemporary of four Tudor monarchs; Henry VIII, Edward VI, Mary I and Elizabeth I. Her life was astounding and Baldwin chronicles it with an absorbing attention to detail that ensures his work is a captivating read.

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Henry VIII’s Last Love by David Baldwin is published by Amberley, 2015. The book is available to buy at all good bookstores, as well as online at the Amberley website, Amazon and The Book Depository.