Book Review – The Seymours of Wolf Hall by David Loades

By Nathen Amin

The term ‘Wolf Hall’ has become widely recognised in recent years thanks to the title of Hilary Mantel’s Booker Prize-winning tour de force, released to much acclaim in 2010. Whilst the protagonist of Mantel’s fictional work is a certain Thomas Cromwell, Wolf Hall itself refers to the family home of the Seymours, a provincially important dynasty based in the Wiltshire manor house.

David Loades book unquestionably intends to capitalise on the considerable attention given to Wolf Hall and its one-time inhabitants through Mantel’s award-winning words, but this isn’t to diminish the scope of Loades’ work; this is a long overdue assessment of the life and times of the foremost of the Seymours, briefly encompassing their beginnings to the apex of their influence during the reigns of Henry VIII and the Seymour-blooded Edward VI. As Loades notes at the outset; “The Seymour family was one of the most prominent at the Tudor court”. Their worth as subjects of such a work does not stem solely from Mantel’s influence.

The book is subtitled ‘A Tudor Family Story’, and with good reason, as the focus of the book is unquestionably Edward and Thomas Seymour, the brothers of Queen Jane who rose high in the Tudor court after their sister’s marriage to Henry VIII in 1537. Edward gradually replaced Thomas Cromwell as King Henry’s chief servant after 1540, becoming earl of Hertford, duke of Somerset and, after the accession of his nephew Edward VI, Lord Protector of England. Thomas was Lord High Admiral, and based at Sudeley Castle with his wife Katherine Parr, the final wife of King Henry, was briefly in custody of the young Princess Elizabeth. Queen Jane, meanwhile, was the focus of Loades’ previous work ‘Jane Seymour: Henry VIII’s Favourite Wife’, which serves as a great companion piece to this particular work.

The author is an Emeritus Professor of the University of Wales, not to mention a fellow of the Royal Historical Society, and as to be expected from such an accomplished academic figure, the book is a thorough, thought-provoking, masterpiece when it comes to the Seymour family in the sixteenth century. You won’t find irrational leaps of opinion or wild speculation in this book unlike many other similar productions, but rather hard fact and logical conclusions drawn directly from available primary source material. Loades’ book is about the real Seymours and how they lived, politicked and endured, not fictional conjecture with little basis in reality. I do feel the book glosses over the origins of the family, founded in the seventh century, and quickly advances to the life and times of Sir John Seymour, the queen’s father, but this is probably not an issue for an intended audience primarily concerned with learning about the Tudor Seymours. This criticism is quickly offset by the engaging introduction from Professor Loades where he effectively justifies the necessity of his work.

The Seymours of Wolf Hall’ is ultimately a much-recommended companion to the more mainstream works on Henry VIII and his extraordinary reign, whilst also serving as a splendid book in its own right. It serves as an ideal read for those looking to broaden their horizons on all things Tudor, and ultimately, whether on topic or off, Professor Loades is one of the most eminent authorities on the Tudor court. There is much to learn from this book.

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David Loades was Emeritus Professor of the University of Wales and an Honorary Member of the University of Oxford, History Faculty. He was also a Fellow of the Royal Historical Society, Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, Vice-President of the Navy Record Society and former President of the Ecclesiastical History Society. He is the author of over thirty books on the sixteenth century, specializing in the Tudors.

Top Ten Myths About Henry VIII

By Amy Licence

MadeGlobal’s “All About” series is the perfect choice for anyone who wants to know more about the key characters of history. The books are colourfully illustrated throughout, have a simple narrative to explain the key points in the character’s life and more detailed sections for the more- able reader or teacher. The book also contains a section of thought-provoking questions which can be used to further discussions about history.

Henry VIII is probably the most famous Tudor. He was a handsome, athletic young man; he never expected to become king and so was determined to enjoy his reign. Henry had six wives but could hate as passionately as he loved. He even had two wives executed. Henry surrounded himself with extraordinary men, including Cardinal Wolsey and Thomas Cromwell, and, during his reign, he changed religion forever in England. His son and daughters went on to be famous monarchs too.

Why did Henry have so many wives? Why was his reign so important?

Here are ten myths often mentioned when discussing Henry VIII

  1. Henry had six wives.

Well, yes and no. It depends on who you ask. Today we accept all the six women- Catherine of Aragon, Anne Boleyn, Jane Seymour, Anne of Cleves, Catherine Howard and Catherine Parr- as Henry’s wives and queens. He went through a wedding ceremony with each of them willingly, save for Anne of Cleves, which he wanted to wriggle out of, but it was diplomatically difficult. Yet if you asked Henry himself, he would say he had two or three true wives. According to the king, his unions with Catherine of Aragon, Anne Boleyn and Anne of Cleves were all invalid because of precontracts or other circumstances, meaning that he had been mistaken at best, deceived at worst. Henry would claim Jane Seymour as his first wife and certainly Catherine Parr as his last. His fifth wife, Catherine Howard was executed, so there was no lengthy annulment, but her precontract with Francis Dereham would have made that match invalid in the king’s eyes too.

2. Henry was huge.

At the end of his life, in his late forties and early fifties, Henry did put on weight, so this is true of that time. By his death, he had a fifty-three inch chest and a fifty-two inch waist. However, for years before this, Henry was handsome, athletic and strong. His punishing physical routine of hunting and jousting kept him in shape and he was considered to be one of the most attractive men of his day, with his red-gold hair and angelic features, as Thomas More described them.

3. Henry had syphilis.

This is very unlikely. The theory didn’t actually emerge until the late nineteenth century, when a historian identified a “ridge” on the king’s nose, in a portrait, which was supposed to indicate the final stages of the disease. However, Henry showed no symptoms of it during his lifetime and was never subjected to the contemporary mercury treatments for syphilis that his French counterpart, Francis I, took regularly. Equally, none of Henry’s children displayed signs of congenital syphilis.

4. Henry was originally intended for the church.

No, he wasn’t. It’s certainly true that Henry wasn’t intended for the throne, as he had an elder brother Arthur, who was being trained up by their father as the next Tudor king. Arthur received a very different education at Ludlow Castle, while Henry was brought up with his sisters at Eltham Palace. Yet it would have been very unlikely that his parents had ever destined him for the church and his upbringing shows no signs of it. If he had been the fourth, fifth, or sixth son, this might have been the case but, although Arthur’s death was not expected, life was fragile and could swiftly end. Henry VII and Elizabeth of York had lost a couple of children in infancy and knew the dangers. Prince Henry was raised as the spare heir but, from the age of eleven, was in line to inherit. This misapprehension may arise from descriptions of him during his teens, in which an observer commented that he was kept closeted away.

5. Henry was a big eater.

Reputedly so, but then he would have needed to eat lots to replace the calories he burned off, spending days in the saddle. There would have been no throwing the bones into the fire though, as some popular films have suggested. Impeccable manners were an essential at court.

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6. Henry was something of a prude.

This one is difficult to know, as it’s all about what happened behind closed doors. While Henry was definitely not the celebrated Romeo that Francis I proved to be, he did have mistresses and fathered at least one illegitimate child that we know of. And that’s the key to this one: it’s about what we do know and what we don’t know. Henry wasn’t so much a prude, as very private and discreet. We only know about his affair with Bessie Blount because she fell pregnant and about Mary Boleyn because it raised potential problems when he wanted to marry her sister. Without those accidents, we would know nothing about Henry’s mistresses at all. So there may well have been others.

7. Henry nearly died twice.

He did indeed! In 1536, the king suffered a terrible fall during a joust, in which his horse fell on top of him, leaving him unconscious for two hours. Then, in 1538, the ulcer on his leg became infected and he writhed in pain for over a week, reputedly turning black in the face, so that his life was despaired of. Things would have been very different in England, had either of those occasions finished him off. He must have been very strong indeed to survive both.

8. Henry was a Protestant.

No! Henry broke with the Pope and established himself as the head of the church of England but, until the day he died, he considered himself to be a reformed Catholic. It was the abuses of the Catholic church he rejected and continued to persecute Protestants as heretics. Sometimes his reforms did seem to send mixed messages, and he drew back from some of them towards the end of his life.

9. Henry executed lots of people.

Henry did not shy away from inflicting “justice.” Especially towards the end of his life, he stepped up his campaign to rid himself of his enemies, even those who had formerly been his close friends, ministers or even his relatives. After the death of Anne Boleyn in 1536, he pursued any perceived treason very harshly, with another purge of his “enemies” in 1538 and, 1541, sending the elderly Margaret Pole to the block. He was ready to make an example of those who rose against him too, ordering mass executions of those protesting against religious reform following the Pilgrimage of Grace. Those who spoke out against his regime, him, or his wives, in the 1530s and 1540s, even through reported gossip, could expect the worst.

10. Henry’s palaces were dirty and smelly.

Well, they were, but only after several weeks of the court being in residence there. Henry himself was rather a clean freak, obsessed with avoiding the bad odours and airs that were thought to spread illness. He had baths installed in his palaces, either made of stone or of wood lined with linen, all supplied by pumped water. He gave detailed instructions for the regular cleaning of his son Edward’s apartments and moved regularly to allow cleaning to take place. His close-stools were regularly changed, his laundry washed and scented, and his rooms swept and perfumed. In later years, the ulcer on his leg did emit unpleasant smells, but that was the result of illness, not lack of hygiene.

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Amy Licence is an historian of women’s lives in the medieval and early modern period, from Queens to commoners. Her particular interest lies in the late fifteenth and early sixteenth century, in gender relations, Queenship and identity, rites of passage, pilgrimage, female orthodoxy and rebellion, superstition, magic, fertility and childbirth. She is also interested in Modernism, specifically Woolf and the Bloomsbury Group, Picasso and Post-Impressionism.

Amy has written for The Guardian, The TLS, The New Statesman, BBC History, The English Review, The Huffington Post, The London Magazine and other places. She has been interviewed regularly for BBC radio, including Woman’s Hour, and made her TV debut in “The Real White Queen and her Rivals” documentary, for BBC2, in 2013. She also writes literary fiction and has been shortlisted twice for the Asham Award.

Her website can be found at amylicence.weebly.com and her new book can be found at the following Amazon link;

Book Review – Catherine of Aragon; An Intimate Life of Henry VIII’s True Wife by Amy Licence

By Nathen Amin

I’ve said in previous book reviews for Amy Licence, that she is unquestionably the most prolific historian writing today. Her output of books in recent years is incredible, the culmination of a life’s fascination and study of the subject, and this continues with her latest offering, Catherine of Aragon, an Intimate Life of Henry VIII’s True Wife.

My first thought upon receiving the book, is that it’s MASSIVE. It’s a seriously thick book, comprising 560 pages split across 7 separate parts. Covered are Catherine’s birth and childhood in Spain, her marriage to Prince Arthur, her widowhood, her early marriage years to Henry VIII, her life as Queen of England, the downfall of her marriage and her final, tragic years. It’s fair to say, this may just be the definitive account of the life of Catherine of Aragon.

Licence’s speciality is the study of the Tudor women, as women in their own right, not as mere decorations of their husbands, fathers or brothers, and it is this expertise she applies to Catherine of Aragon, the foremost Tudor woman for the first quarter of the sixteenth century.

The author leaves no stone unturned, and covers the entirety of Queen Catherine’s life, not just her more infamous moments. Anyone with a passing interest in the Tudors will know of Catherine’s doomed marriage to Arthur, followed by her second union with his brother, Henry. This does not, and should not, define Catherine, however, and the author does a great job in examining the early life of the Spanish princess, from her birth in 1485 to her upbringing amongst the fascinating and colourful royal court of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile, Europe’s renowned Catholic Monarchs. Catherine’s later devoutness and stubbornness did not come from nowhere, it was imbued in her as a product of this illustrious Spanish union.

14591841_1222548391146094_4556601838587401747_nParticularly fascinating, and crucial to Catherine’s life, is the detailed account of her 1501 wedding to Arthur, particularly the subsequent ‘did they, didn’t they?’ bedding ceremony, or ‘the most famous bedding ceremony of all time’ as Licence aptly puts it. Intriguingly, Licence offers a third, graphic, scenario as to what happened on that fateful night, a compelling theory that may just make you blush.

We are also treated to an in-depth insight into Catherine’s life in between her marriages. It is often overlooked that this span of time was eight years, that is almost a decade of character growth which is often disregarded in other books on the subject. It is these insights into the lesser-known minutiae of the queen’s life that make Licence’s book a worthwhile purchase. In fact, I’d argue it’s a necessity for anyone who wishes to study, or gain greater knowledge, of the first half of the Tudor century of rule.

As expected perhaps from the leading Tudor historian on female matters, this book is sympathetic and understanding of its subject, but that’s not to say in a biased or predisposed way. Licence comes to her conclusions about Katherine through sheer research of her character, her influences and her actions, and puts forward a compelling case of a pious and courageous woman who only sought to serve her god, and serve her husband, in the manner she thought best. This is a compassionate and positive portrayal of Catherine, but that is only because it is the least the woman deserves.

Quite simply, there doesn’t appear to be anything more said on the subject of Catherine of Aragon, that what Amy Licence has covered in her colossal biography.

Book Review – Whitehall Palace in a Nutshell by Philip Roberts

By Nathen Amin

Many people today use the term Whitehall to refer to the government of the present day, but not many of those will be aware that the term emanates from the Palace of Whitehall which once stood on the site of modern governmental buildings in Westminster. One man who is more than aware of this is historian and researcher Phil Roberts, who has put together this handy history of the main London residence of the kings and queens of England from 1530 to 1698.

Roberts is an enthusiastic student of his subject, captivated by its history and eager to share his knowledge with the wider public. His book ‘Whitehall Palace in a Nutshell’ is the first step to achieving this aim. Although the book is concise, part of publisher Made Global’s intriguing ‘in a Nutshell’ series, Roberts commendably succeeds in covering all aspects of the Palace’s history, from its requisition by Henry VIII to the reign of James I, also taking into account its place in the English Civil War, the execution of Charles I, and the Cromwellian era. His attention to detail is noted, including trivia such as Henry VIII paying £1,130 in 1531 to buy up the buildings around the palace or that he owned over 2028 pieces of plate and 2000 pieces of tapestry by 1547. The miscellany of events towards the end of the book is particularly a mine of information.

The palace started life as York Place, the London residence of the Archbishops of York, but after Cardinal Wolsey’s fall, was acquired by Henry VIII in 1530. Within two years, it was known as White Hall and became the favoured residence of the king and Anne Boleyn when in the capital. It was a massive complex, growing to contain 2000 rooms and covering 23 acres, eclipsing Versailles, the Vatican and Hampton Court. His account of the fire that finally brought the Palace tumbling down is particularly gripping, highlighting how we lost one of the most splendid Tudor palaces in the country. ‘Whitehall Burnt! Nothing but walls and ruins left’ exclaimed the diarist John Evelyn, reporting the tragedy, as shown in Roberts’ book, robbed us of a wonderful building.

51zZCa+O7dLThe maps are a helpful guide for the modern visitor to London to place themselves on the spot where kings once rested their heads, although unfortunately there isn’t much remaining.  In fact, the wine cellar still survives below street level and whilst is not open to the public, Roberts used personal connections to gain access, a benefit which is noticeable in his work, particularly in photographs of the interior.

All things considered, Whitehall Palace is a short read that is detailed enough to give new information and small enough to be used as a guide book when traipsing through the streets of London. Whitehall Palace in a Nutshell is a valuable addition for any student of both Tudor and Stuart periods, whether academic or amateur. An interesting read that is enough to compel me to pay more attention to my surroundings next time I am down by the Thames in Westminster. I suspect that was the author’s aim.

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Philip Roberts, author of Whitehall Palace in a Nutshell, is employed as an ambulance crew member. He is also a Tudor era enthusiast, having been a member of the Mary Rose Trust Information Group Team for well over twenty years, educating people on King Henry VIII’s warship, and on everyday Tudor life. He has also been a reenactor as a Tudor at Kentwell Hall, Suffolk, the world famous Elizabethan mansion, and still re-enacts at the Mary Rose Museum at Portsmouth Historic Dockyard.

Book Review – In the Footsteps of the Six Wives of Henry VIII by Sarah Morris and Natalie Grueninger

By Nathen Amin

Whilst everyone assumes that I am into the ‘Tudors subject’ as a whole, 1485 to 1603 is a substantial period of time covering many aspects. I find myself drawn to the early period of the Tudors and in particular the reign of Henry VII and the Wars of the Roses that preceded his rise. Henry VIII interests me, his multiple wives and successors less so.

Therefore I was expecting to be intrigued by this new offering from Morris and Greuninger, just not overly so. With books like this, focusing on parts of the Tudor reign that I normally choose to overlook as matter of preference, I tend to try and focus on any information relating to Henry VII that I didn’t previously know. Any concerns I may have had about being bored by the subject matter at hand however, was dispelled as soon as I saw the contents page. Castle after Castle and Palace after Palace, including some oddly unfamiliar ones.

This book follows on the heels of the pairs’ much-lauded book In the Footsteps of Anne Boleyn, a release that has become a must-have for those stimulated by the charismatic enigma that was Henry VIII’s second queen. Casting the net wider, this new offering seeks to, self-explanatory, follow in the footsteps of not only Anne, but also her five other fellow queens of Henry VIII.

51C52QElN8LGuide books like this are a particular favourite of mine. I not only enjoy reading history, I enjoy visiting history and judging from the continued survival of many of Britain’s historic treasures, this seems to be a widely held sentiment. Being able to picture a location from words alone can be rewarding, but to physically visit a site is even better. For those unable to, due to time, distance or otherwise, books like this are an invaluable aid in furthering ones knowledge. But do not be mistaken, this is not a basic guide book light on historical content.

The book is split into seven sections, with one covering the principal royal residences known to all, followed by an individual section dedicated to each queen. In total we are provided eighty locations, with a detailed history of each along with information on any interesting artefacts or features still extant. This is bolstered by over 130 pictures of the sites for those unable to physically visit. A welcome inclusion is the plethora of family trees, maps and timelines that augment the text. Each entry has also been visited by the authors, which is evident in their narrative as they paint a vivid mental picture with their words. Furthermore each queen is introduced with a short biography so even if you have no prior knowledge of the personalities involved, you are catered for. It’s information-overload in the best sense of the word.

The old favourites are here; Hampton Court Palace, Whitehall Palace and Windsor Castle. But where this book stands on its own is the inclusion of the lesser known sites which once hosted queens of England. Acton Court near Bristol has a room where Anne Boleyn and Henry VIII dined in whilst for the first time that I’m aware of we are introduced to the various locations in Germany and Spain with Tudor connections. Dusseldorf features prominently in reference to Anne of Cleves with Spanish sites such as the Royal Palace of Medina del Campo, Alcazar of Seville or the Santiago de Compostela Cathedral providing a thorough account of the early life of Katherine of Aragon. An example of the detailed narrative can be found in the entry for the Archbishop’s Palace, Alcala de Henares in Madrid, where Katherine was born. The authors describe the palace as;

“a vast complex of buildings, gardens and courtyards, more than double the size of the original fortress. It comprised several patios (courtyards), towers, galleries and chambers, including la sala de la Reyna, the queen’s chamber, elaborately decorated in Gothic-Mudejar style, and on the floor above, el Salon de Concilios, or Council Wing”.

Elsewhere, I hadn’t heard of the Echateau d’Amboise or the Schloss Dusselforf for example, so these were fascinating to discover. Closer to home, I hadn’t come across places such as Beddington Place, the Manor of Bletchingley or Thornton Abbey before. The research cannot be faulted.

In the introduction to the book, the authors note that In the Footsteps… takes the reader ‘from the sun-baked plains of Spain in the south, through the lush mountains of the Rhine Valley in Germany to the east, via the great abbeys of England’s West Country to the medieval cities of northern England’. They’re not wrong. Thoroughly enjoyable read, that can be used as and when you need it as a handy reference guide. I’ll certainly be taking it out and about next time I’m visiting any Tudor sites.
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Sarah Morris runs the website http://www.anneboleynbook.com, dedicated to her non-fiction and fiction writing about England’s most famous queen consort.

Natalie Grueninger is a researcher, writer and educator, and founder of http://www.onthetudortrail.com, a site about Anne Boleyn and Tudor England. She is the co-author, with Sarah Morris, of In the Footsteps of Anne Boleyn.

A Tour of Tudor Kent

By Nathen Amin

Kent is undeniably one of the most beautiful parts of England and is generally known as the ‘Garden of England’. Suitably located between London and the port of Calais, it is unsurprising to discover that Kent possesses substantial Tudor heritage. Throughout the county are an abundance of castles, abbeys and churches with sixteenth century connections and this article will document some of those.

Hever Castle

Hever Castle is without a doubt the jewel in Kent’s Tudor crown and is notable for its connection to the Boleyn family. Although it contains thirteenth century origins the castle truly came into being when it was converted into a substantial manor house by Mayor of London Geoffrey Boleyn in 1462. Geoffrey’s grandson Thomas Boleyn inherited Hever in 1505 and lived there with his wife Elizabeth and children George, Mary and Anne.

Hever Castle was extensively restored by American magnate William Waldorf Astor during the early twentieth century and the result is a quintessential castle with very few equals in Europe. The crenellated keep has an abundance of arrow loops and complex chimneys with a moat that ensures Hever Castle creates an awe-striking impression upon the visitor. The wooden drawbridge and portcullis which leads to through the gatehouse and into the courtyard is considered to be as it was when the Boleyn’s journeyed through it during the sixteenth century.

Hever Castle

Hever Castle

On permanent display in the castle is Anne’s personal Book of Hours, complete with examples of her handwriting, whilst another temporary exhibition showcasing the marital bed of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York can be viewed in the Long Gallery, built by Thomas Boleyn in 1506 and which at various times hosted Henry VIII.

Although the castle’s association with Anne Boleyn is the primary reason Hever has remained so evocative it should be noted the premises was owned by Henry VIII’s fourth wife Anne of Cleves between 1540 and her death in 1557, bestowed upon her a part of her divorce settlement. Intriguing to note is the hidden catholic chapel that was built at Hever in 1584 by then-owners the Waldegrave family, recusant Roman Catholics worshipping in secret at a time when it was outlawed by Anne’s daughter Queen Elizabeth I. The castle was saved from possible ruin by Astor and his careful and delicate restoration has resulted in Hever’s heritage to be savoured 500 years after its most famous resident loitered amongst the confines.

St Peter’s Church, Hever

St Peter’s Church in Hever is notable as the final resting place of Sir Thomas Boleyn, resident of the nearby castle and controversial father of the Anne Boleyn. Sir Thomas’ tomb can be found in a place of honour near the altar and is a simple affair, perhaps indicative of the discreet way his life ended with shamed exile from court. Thomas Boleyn died on 12 March 1539 and his tomb is adorned with a brass plate depicting the one-time queen’s father in the robes of a Knight of the Garter which he was once accustomed to wearing. Noticeable above his shoulder is the Boleyn family emblem of a falcon. St Peter’s has been the parish church of Hever since at least the fourteenth century and during her childhood at Hever it is not fanciful to suggest that Anne, along with the wider Boleyn family, were well acquainted with the church.

The Tomb of Thomas Boleyn

The Tomb of Thomas Boleyn

Leeds Castle

Leeds Castle is a dramatic medieval fortress-turned-palatial home partially enclosed by a substantial moat and with its charming setting in the centre of a sprawling garden estate it can certainly rival Hever Castle in its fairy-tale appearance.

The castle has origins in the twelfth century and by the end of the thirteenth century was known to be a favoured residence of King Edward I. During the early fifteenth century the castle was owned by Katherine de Valois, widow of King Henry V. Katherine’s scandalous marriage to Welshman Owen Tudor introduced the Tudors into English society and their grandson Henry Tudor would secure the crown at Bosworth in 1485. It is tantalising to suggest that Katherine and Owen may have shared romantic trysts in Leeds enchanting surroundings. As part of the crown estate the castle passed into the control of the Tudors after their accession to the throne of England and in 1519 Henry VIII presented Leeds Castle to his first wife Katherine of Aragon. Still evident in the Queen’s Gallery are dynastic engravings relating to Katherine, including her heraldic badge of the pomegranate.

Leeds Castle

Leeds Castle

In 1520 Leeds Castle played host to the royal court when Henry, his queen, and a retinue numbering in the thousands stayed in the castle grounds prior to crossing the English Channel on the way to France for the fabled Field of the Cloth of Gold summit with French king Francis I. In 1552 the castle was granted to Sir Anthony St Leger, ending over 300 years of royal ownership. During Queen Elizabeth’s reign it appears four marble busts were commission of Henry VIII, Edward VI, Mary I and Elizabeth herself and these are still on display in the gallery.

Henry VIII

Henry VIII

Substantial investment and renovation has taken place at Leeds over the centuries, notably in the early twentieth century. The result is a palatial complex considered to be the ‘loveliest castle in the world’ and although genuine Tudor features are at a minimum, it is nonetheless a location worthy of exploration.

Rochester Castle

Rochester Castle’s Norman keep is a domineering stone structure that overlooks the River Medway with an authoritative confidence that was a trademark of the twelfth century. Whilst the majority of the castle lies in ruins the keep itself is generally intact, which is perhaps indicative of the quality of its workmanship when one considers the castle was sacked during the Peasants Revolt in 1381.

Rochester Castle

Rochester Castle

It was within the medieval fortress that Henry VIII first met his fourth wife Anne of Cleves, an encounter which has been told and retold with such embellishment in popular culture the truth has become somewhat obscured by myth. Anne begun her lengthy journey to England in the winter of 1539 and by New Years’ Eve had arrived at Rochester. The king could hardly contain his excitement and journeyed from London the following day with boyish enthusiasm to surprise his new wife, incognito. The disguised king burst into Anne’s room with five of his companions and begun to make romantic advances towards the startled duchess, unaware of this English custom. His attempts failed; Anne barely responded and the humiliated king stormed out of the room, the marriage doomed from the first day. Whilst the ‘flander’s mare’ comment is a seventeenth century invention, it was reported that Henry nonetheless declared that the Duchess was ‘nothing so well as she was spoken off’. By July the marriage had been annulled.

St Augustine’s Abbey, Canterbury

Christianity was brought to Canterbury and England by St Augustine, who established a Benedictine abbey in the city in 598. Augustine’s abbey was one of the largest and wealthiest in the kingdom for over nine hundred years until its dissolution in 1538 under the reign of Henry VIII. As part of Henry’s Reformation the abbey was surrendered to the king’s commissioners on 30 July that year and the property became part of the crown estate. The king set about transforming part of the erstwhile ecclesiastical building into a luxurious palatial retreat which was initially used by Henry’s fourth wife Anne of Cleves. Queen Elizabeth I was also known to have stayed at the new palace during one of her Kent progresses although the building gradually fell into disrepair during the seventeenth century. Although now a dramatic ruin the red bricks of the Tudor palace are still visible along with the original abbey walls. Furthermore two gatehouses mark the former entrances into the abbey ground’s and are reminiscent of similar gates at Hampton Court.

St Augustine's Abbey ruins

St Augustine’s Abbey ruins

Christ Church Gate, Canterbury

The splendid gateway which stands in the city’s Butter Market area provides access into the Cathedral grounds but is a wonderful display of early sixteenth century architecture in itself. The gate was completed in 1517 and is a celebration of the reign of Henry Tudor, the father of then-king Henry VIII.

Christ Church Gate

Christ Church Gate

Henry VII's Coat of Arms

Henry VII’s Coat of Arms

Prominent on the façade of the gatehouse are the collection of coats of arms with preferential placement afforded to the arms of Henry VII, his son Prince Arthur and daughter-in-law Katherine of Aragon. Also present is the crowned Tudor Rose and Beaufort portcullis, two traditional emblems of the first Tudor king. Another large Tudor Rose adornment can be viewed inside the gatehouse on the ceiling, capturing the attention of all who walk through the passageway and into the cathedral grounds.

Canterbury Cathedral

Canterbury Cathedral is the mother church of the Anglican communion and has been considered the premier holy seat of England for over a thousand years. Although the cathedral is perhaps best known as the location of Thomas Becket’s brutal murder in 1170 it does also possess a substantial Tudor heritage. Upon the approach to the cathedral immediately striking is the 250 foot central tower, often referred to as the Bell Harry tower. This was erected in 1498 during the reign of Henry VII and was financed in part by Archbishop John Morton, whose tomb lies inside the cathedral’s crypt. Cardinal Morton was one of the king’s closest and most trusted advisors and assisted in ruling the country, in time becoming notorious for his harsh financial policies which helped bolster the royal treasury. He served as archbishop from 1486 until 1500 and became a cardinal in 1493.  Morton died on 15 September 1500 and his tomb in the crypt is arguably the most extravagant in the cathedral, generously covered in Tudor imagery such as the red and white rose as well as angels and cardinal’s caps. Also featured are a collection of tun barrels inscribed with the word Mor, a pun on his name Mor-ton.

William Warham's Tomb

William Warham’s Tomb

Although the killing of Becket occurred over 300 years before the Tudors came to power, by the late fifteenth century the beatified saint was revered throughout the kingdom, particularly by monarch’s seeking the goodwill of God. That being said, the Henrican Reformation of the late 1530s witnessed a dramatic change in how England began to view Christianity and amongst the many changes which Henry VIII brought in was the abolishing of shrines. A notable casualty of his policy was Becket’s shrine in Canterbury, which was routinely destroyed with great pleasure upon the orders of the authoritative king. It was recorded that the treasures found in Becket’s shrine were so substantial it took twenty-six carts to tow it all away. The location of Becket’s shrine is now marked with a solitary candle, a poignant reminder of the site of medieval England’s greatest such monument.

As well as Morton, located elsewhere in the cathedral are a number of other tombs related to the Tudors. Located close to where Thomas Becket met his end is the elaborate effigy of William Warham, Archbishop of Canterbury between 1503 and 1532. Warham was initially employed by Henry VII as a diplomat and helped arrange the marriage of Prince Arthur to Katherine of Aragon in 1502. After becoming archbishop a year later he also served for a time as Lord Chancellor. In 1509 Warham crowned Henry VIII at Westminster Abbey and also married the young king to Katherine of Aragon. Two decades later he would play a role in the divorce crisis that threatened to tear apart the kingdom, initially taking a view that Henry should be granted his request although later clashing with the king over his attempts to break with Rome. His death in August 1532 saved him from the king’s wrath and Warham was interred in Canterbury on 10 September that year.

Thomas Bourchier's Tomb

Thomas Bourchier’s Tomb

Another notable tomb located in the cathedral is that of Thomas Bourchier who became Archbishop of Canterbury in 1454. Bourchier was notable for his role in the reigns of three kings towards the end of the Wars of the Roses. Bourchier crowned kings Edward IV, Richard III and Henry VII and also officiated at the wedding of the latter king to Elizabeth of York which symbolically united the houses of York and Lancaster. Unlike many clerics Bourchier had an impeccable aristocratic pedigree and was a great-grandson of Edward III as well as brother of Henry Bourchier, 1st Earl of Essex, and half-brother of Humphrey Stafford, 1st Duke of Buckingham. Bourchier died on 30 March 1486 and was accorded a lavish burial fit for a high-ranking member of both the nobility and the church. His tomb is located close to where the shrine of Thomas Becket once stood, a position of honour.

Situated on the cathedral’s west front are a collection of Victorian statues which depict various monarchs throughout English history. Notable amongst these are Henry VII, Henry VIII and Elizabeth I.

Henry VII Statue

Henry VII Statue

Dover Castle

Dover Castle is often considered to be England’s oldest fort and is currently a vast complex of buildings which collectively represent every era of the nation’s history. There are Roman, Saxon, Medieval and Tudor remains at the castle as well as an array of buildings which played key roles in the two twentieth century World Wars. Dover Castle has been a fortress at the forefront of England’s defences for over a thousand years.

Dover Castle Keep

Dover Castle Keep

It is unsurprising to discover this was particularly true during the sixteenth century when Henry VIII regularly tussled with Spain and France for supremacy in this part of Europe. At various points it seemed that invasion was likely therefore Henry proceeded to bolster the defences at Dover, including the construction of a couple of Bulwark towers to support the great Norman keep that looms high above the acclaimed white cliffs. Henry held the title of Constable of Dover as a child and may have felt a degree of connection with the castle. He notably stayed at the castle for two weeks in June 1513, using the keep’s royal apartments to good effect. He was again based at Dover in May 1520 prior to departing for France for a summit with King Francis I, a meeting better known as the Field of the Cloth of Gold. Although the surrounding buildings are generally of a later period, the keep itself remains as it was during the Tudor period and offers incredible views across the English Channel, a view Henry may have taken in as he dreamt of winning great victories across the water.

Eltham Palace

Eltham Palace is perhaps the lesser known royal palace within the modern London boundaries, often overlooked in favour of Hampton Court, the Tower of London or Greenwich Palace. It may be because the vast majority of the palace is today an art-deco masterpiece which gained a new lease of life during the early twentieth century.

Nonetheless Eltham still has surviving architectural features which would have been recognisable to the Tudors, particularly the splendid Great Hall. Eltham’s hall was built in the 1470s by King Edward IV who used the palace as a peaceful country retreat in the Kent countryside. After Henry Tudor came to the throne in 1485 he inherited the palace as part of the crown estate and equally felt favourable towards the property. Ideally situated away from the bustling and polluted London but close enough to visit, Henry based his royal nursery at Eltham, positioning most of his young children within the palace walls. Amongst those who spent a sizable amount of time at Eltham was the future Henry VIII, who would have roamed around the grounds as an impressionable and enthusiastic young boy. His sisters Margaret and Mary also joined him for periods of time as did his younger siblings Edmund and Elizabeth, both of whom would tragically die in childhood. The Princess Elizabeth actually passed away at Eltham, succumbing from disease on 14 September 1495.

Eltham's Great Hall roof

Eltham’s Great Hall roof

Four years later the royal nursery was visited by Thomas More and his friend Desiderius Erasmus, who came across a buoyant and expectant Prince Henry. The Dutch humanist would later comment that the young royal ‘had a vivid and active mind, above measure to execute whatever tasks he undertook’. Henry was also educated at Eltham by the poet John Skelton and it seems that it was whilst growing up at this palace he began to develop an intellect and outlook on life that would later become both charismatic and deadly as an adult.

The Great Hall

The Great Hall

The Great Hall went through periods of ruin during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries but was rescued when the property came into the ownership of the wealthy Courtauld family in the 1930s. The hall was restored and the oak hammer-beam roof appears as spectacular on first viewing as it must have done to the Tudors five hundred years ago. It is fair to suggest that Henry cherished his time at Eltham for he later extended part of the palace in 1519 when he was king as well as spending reasonable amounts time visiting. No other monarch after Henry VIII considered Eltham Palace to be worthy of their time. Anne Boleyn is said to have visited Eltham at various times during her marriage and courtship to Henry.

A modern embellishment which is nonetheless worthy of attention is the stained glass window which depicts various royal coats of arms, including that of Henry VII erroneously credited to his son Henry VIII. Also noteworthy is the stone bridge which gives modern access to the grounds which is off fifteenth century provenance and which would have once been passed by various members of the Tudor dynasty.

The Tudor Coat of Arms

The Tudor Coat of Arms

Deal and Walmer Castles

Deal and Walmer Castles are a pair of remarkable coastal forts which were built under the orders of Henry VIII in 1539 to defend his kingdom against Spanish and French aggression following the Reformation. The two forts are situated under two miles apart and would have combined to provide a degree of protection against any ships which approached the coast of Kent. A third castle was also based at nearby Sandown but this has no surviving ruins.

Deal Castle

Deal Castle

Walmer Castle

Walmer Castle

What makes Deal and Walmer particularly unique is their layout – both appear from the air to resemble the Tudor rose, a result of their multiple semi-circular bastion towers. These towers contain a variety of rooms inside, such as guard quarters and gunpowder stores, whilst their roofs have stone platforms which were loaded with cannon guns directed out to sea. Both were once accessed via a wooden drawbridge built across a moat but today stone bridges offer a permanent crossing. It is thought that Henry personally inspected his sea forts although ultimately they were not utilised during his reign as the invasion threat from the continent never truly materialised.

Book Review – Henry VIII’s Last Love: The Extraordinary Life of Katherine Willoughby, Lady-in-Waiting to the Tudors by David Baldwin

By Nathen Amin

David Baldwin’s latest release is a fascinating portrayal of a woman who almost became the seventh wife of Henry VIII; as it was the king died before any plans came to fruition and the name of Katherine Willoughby was somewhat lost to history. Baldwin attempts, and will succeed, bringing the erstwhile Duchess of Suffolk back into the spotlight with this in-depth account of her life at the most famous royal court in English history.

Somewhat fittingly for a future Duchess of Suffolk, Katherine was born in March 1519 in Parham Old Hall in Suffolk as the daughter of Baron Willoughby de Eresby and Spaniard Maria de Salinas. Her father was one of the greatest landowners in the region whilst her mother was a close friend and lady-in-waiting to Queen Katherine of Aragon. The wedding of Baron Willoughby and Maria de Salinas incurred the support of King Henry and he attended the wedding where he bestowed a cash gift on the couple along with Grimsthorpe Castle. Henry even named one of his ships after Maria, the Mary Willoughby. Considering the closeness of Maria to Katherine of Aragon it seems probable that young Katherine Willoughby was named for the queen.

The child inherited her father’s barony at the age of seven on the death of her father in 1526 and this made her one of the greatest heiresses in the country and by proxy an eligible marital prospect. Her wardship reverted to the crown but was sold by the king to his close friend Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk. Suffolk married his ward in 1533 only ten weeks after the death of his wife, the king’s sister Mary. Rather scandalously the Duke was 49 years old whilst his young bride was only 14. Nonetheless they appear to have had a happy marriage that included two young sons, Henry and Charles.

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Although she had remained an ardent Roman Catholic, after the death of her Spanish mother in 1539 it seems Katherine embraced Protestantism. Whilst discussing the Duchess’ conversion from Catholic to Protestant, Baldwin helpfully attempts to summarise the divide between the two strands of Christianity for the modern reader. This is helpful in that the topic is often taken for granted by an author and helps add context to the importance of Katherine’s conversion and the impact it had on her life during this period of religious turmoil. Baldwin points out that disagreements between the two faiths was often a matter of life and death and into this void bravely stepped the Duchess during this period. The author takes the step of stating that “this daughter of a Roman Catholic mother became on of the most fervent Protestants of her day”. This was furthered by her friendship to King Henry VIII’s sixth wife Katherine Parr, a noted reformer and devotee to learning.

At the time of her elderly husband’s death in 1545, the Dowager Duchess of Suffolk was still only 26 years old, fertile and attractive with a wealthy portfolio of property. She was as attractive a marital proposition as she had been prior to her marriage to Charles Brandon. In spite of her close friendship to the king’s current queen, Katherine Parr, rumours spread across royal courts that the King was about to take another wife, namely Katherine Willoughby, widow of his best friend Brandon. In February 1546 Imperial Ambassador Van der Delft wrote: “I hesitate to report there are rumours of a new queen. Some attribute it to the sterility of the present Queen, while others say that there will be no change during the present war. Madame Suffolk is much talked about and is in great favour”.

Baldwin theorises “It is possible that by 1546 he had grown impatient with Queen Catherine’s failure to give him a second son, and more than ever saw this younger, perhaps more attractive, woman who was now a widow and the mother of two healthy boys as the solution to his problem. He would not have been the first man to think that a new, more exciting, relationship would somehow restore his lost youth”. As it was, Katherine never married Henry and the king died in 1547 still wed to her friend and intellectual companion, Katherine Parr.

Katherine Willoughby’s later life would be spent as a leading participant in the Protestant Reformation and Baldwin recounts her actions and movements during this period with alacrity and insightful analysis, including her grief at the deaths of her two sons from the Sweating Sickness in 1551. She spent a period in exile during the reign of Queen Mary due to her committed protestant beliefs before returning after the accession of Elizabeth. She remained a protestant figurehead until her death as an elderly woman in 1580, by which point she was close to irreconcilably falling out with the queen. Each moment is documented in detail by Baldwin who has used a wide range of sources to formulate his biography.

Baldwin’s book is opened with a quote by Muriel St Clare Bryne who stated in 1981 that “Katherine Willoughby is one of the most interesting women of the Tudor Period” and Baldwin’s book serves to underline this notion. The author summarises her life as one ‘of privilege mixed with tragedy and danger, but she kept her head on her shoulders when many of her contemporaries lost theirs for less cause’. The book is concise and detailed; it focuses on events and their impact on his subject as opposed to other books on the era which often delve off on irrelevant tangents. All in all, Katherine Willoughby is a woman who was actively involved in some of the most important events of the Tudor age and was a contemporary of four Tudor monarchs; Henry VIII, Edward VI, Mary I and Elizabeth I. Her life was astounding and Baldwin chronicles it with an absorbing attention to detail that ensures his work is a captivating read.

David

Henry VIII’s Last Love by David Baldwin is published by Amberley, 2015. The book is available to buy at all good bookstores, as well as online at the Amberley website, Amazon and The Book Depository.